In 2005-'06 we had published in COLOURAGE, a series of 10 articles on the market segments of technical textiles[1-10]. Since then, during the past 7-8 years there has been considerable progress in this area of activity both globally and especially at national level, the relevant details of which were given in the earlier Parts and repeated in the following 'Introduction' section of this Paper.
TABLE 77 gives details of 17 papers of this series. published so far in Colourage.
In the paper published in last month's Colourage, we moved on to the next market segment, viz., Hometech, the first part of which coverd its introduction, components and their importance with growth projections. In this Part-2 of this topic we are describing the manufacturers of the major components of Hometech TT products.
Fig. 321 shows arm chair, the symbol of this segment on technical textiles used in domestic and institutional articles.
The following excerpts on Hometech are taken from a more recent survey report on all aspects of Technical Textiles especially in India:
The Hometech segment of technical textiles comprise of the textile components used in household applications. These products range from blinds used in the house to the filter products used in the vacuum cleaners. They are an important component in the mattress and pillows as well. They are made of both natural and synthetic fibres. For example, carpet backing cloth in made from jute as well as synthetic fibres.
The technical textile products covered under Hometech are as give below:
- Mattress and pillow components
- Carpet backing Cloth (Jute & Synthetic)
- Stuff Toys
- HVAC Filters
- Filter cloth for vacuum cleaners
- Nonwoven wipes
- Mosquito nets
- Furniture fabrics
Manufacturers of Hometech TT Products
Fiberfil refers to Polyester Staple Fibers used as filling for pillows, decorative pillows, cushions, bolsters, quilts & comforters, mattresses, mattress toppers, mattress pads, sleeping bags, furniture cushions, furniture backs, insulated garments and soft toys. Traditionally cotton has been used as a filling material in India. Though with rapid development in synthetic fiber production technology special synthetic fibers have been developed as an alternative to cotton for filling purpose.
Fiberfil is available in deniers ranging from 2 to 20 however the most common types of Fiberfil used for stuffing purpose are 6 D and 15 D. The fibers are available in cut lengths of 32mm, 40mm, 44mm, 51mm, 64mm, 76mm, 88mm, 108mm and 128mm. However, the normal cut lengths used for filling are 32mm (for blow filling), 51mm and 64mm. Fiberfil can be classified based on the method of production, cross section of the staple fibers, type of finishing etc.
Classification of Fiberfil
Based on Manufacturing Process - Virgin PSF & Regenerated PSF
Based on Cross section - Hollow & Solid
Based on Finish – Siliconised & Non siliconised
Virgin PSF is manufactured from a combination of Terephthalic Acid (PTA) and Monoethylene Glycol (MEG). The regenerated PSF is made by recycling polyester waste such as PET bottles and any other 100% polyester scrap. Majority of the Fiberfil produced from recycled waste has solid tubular cross section whereas virgin PSF has a hollow core which gives a higher diameter for the same denier and hence higher bulk, particularly for filling end uses. As a result hollow PSF can give the same support level of recycled fibers with 15- 20% less filling quantity. Moreover the hollow PSF Fiberfil is more soft and comfortable, does not form lumps, retains bulk and shape after wash and is more durable. Siliconised PSF has more bounce than non siliconised type.
Conjugated Fiberfil is another kind of product available which is a bi component fiber with natural crimp (unlike other fibers which need to be imparted crimps in the manufacturing process). PSF non siliconised Fiberfil with solid cross section is the most widely used type in the Indian market. Fiberfil is also available in the form of wadding which is a soft web of fiber in sheet form. Fiberfil has the following advantages over cotton as a filling material.
Fig. 322: Examples of Fiberfil products
- Better filling and greater softness than cotton and other fibers of equivalent weight. The filling quantity required with Fiberfil is 70-80 % of the filling quantity with cotton
- Moisture and mildew resistance which avoids infestation Enhanced air circulation (especially for hollow PSF)
- Better bounce and does not become flat with repeated usage.
- Washability (hollow PSF retain bulk and shape after wash)
Fig. 322 shows examples of fiberfil products.
Reliance Industries Limited is the largest manufacturer of Virgin PSF Fiberfil in India. The company markets its product under brand name Recron. Some other major manufacturers engaged in manufacture of virgin PSF are Ganesh Polytex, Arora Fibres, Alliance Fibres and Nirmal Fibres Limited. Table 78 gives relevant details of these manufacturers.
Table 78: Key Manufacturers of Fiberfil products in India
Carpet backing cloth
A carpet is any loom-woven, felted textile or grass floor covering. The global carpet market for domestic and industrial end use is dominated by several varieties of carpet such as Hand Knotted Carpets, Hand Woven Carpets, Tufted Carpets, Needle felt Carpets, Flat weave Carpets, etc. Carpet Backing Cloth (CBC) is used as the backing material for both woven and tufted carpets as depicted in the figure .
CBC is generally classified into two categories:
- Primary Carpet backing: The base fabric on which pile yarns are tufted and anchored to make a carpet
- Secondary Carpet backing: Fabric bonded on the backside of the carpet forming an underlay.
Primary backing is used for making the carpet in which yarn is woven or tufted. Carpet after being dyed is sent for secondary backing. Here the surface is smoothened and backing is applied. Latex is applied on the back of the carpet by passing the carpet through the puddle of latex. Latex is forced down by the blade around all the yarn on the back of the carpet, which locks the yarn into the backing. A second coat of latex is applied thereafter which holds the secondary backing onto the tufted material. The secondary backing provides dimensional stability while locking individual tufts in place.
Primary backing is manufactured mainly from synthetic fabric. Secondary backing is made of both jute and woven polypropylene. Jute carpet backing cloth is approximately 104" wide with gm varying between 180 and 407. Jute backing has certain limitations such as potential for browning and rotting. Thus, the secondary backings used today are majorly woven polypropylene made of a leno weave of slit film and spun olefin yarns that forms a stretchable secondary backing fabric. Synthetic carpet backing cloth is available in many varieties of which some are:
Fig. 323 shows examples of Carpet Backing products”
Key manufacturers of CBC
The major manufacturers of Jute CBC are: Other players include
- Auckland International
- Prabartak Jute
- India Jute & Ind
- Chapadany Industries Ltd etc.
Fig. 323: Carpet backing products
Stuffed toys, also referred to as plush toys and soft toys, are made up of soft knitted fabrics stuffed with filling material. Stuffed toys are popular for a variety of reasons – as toys for kids, as gifts among youngsters for Valentine's Day, birthdays, other kind of special days or just as an expression of thought.
Stuffed toys are entirely textile material. The outer fabric or skin of stuffed toys is made of fur, fleece, polyester felt, acrylic plush fabrics, etc. The skin is stuffed with a variety of materials such as polyester staple Fiberfil, foam, cloth scrap, paper foam or cotton. The toys are manufactured in different shapes, sizes and colors, the height varying from 6 cm to 200 cm.
Market dynamics and key growth drivers
Stuffed toys are very popular among kids. Besides this, stuffed toys are also used by youngsters for decoration at home or work place, as gifts on occasions such as Valentine's Day, birthdays, other special days, etc. The young demography, rising disposable income and people's preference for stuffed toys as a gift item augur well for the industry. The industry is seasonal with demand picking up during festive season, Valentine's Day and during vacations. The demand is more or less limited to urban area with metros and other big cities accounting for majority of the demand.
Market size of stuffed toys and future forecast
Based on interaction with the industry experts and key industry players the domestic market size for stuffed toys is estimated at Rs. 420 crore or 60 million pieces. On account of rising disposable income and increasing preference for stuffed toys amongst both youngsters and kids the stuff toy manufacturers have been witnessing double digit growth rates in the recent years and the industry is expected to grow at a CAGR of 15%. Thus, the market size of stuffed toys is expected to increase to 120 million pieces by 2012-13. The market potential in 2012-13 is estimated at around Rs. 1,050 crore. An inflationary increase of 5% is considered for estimating the market size.
Fig. 324 shows examples of stuffed toys.
Key manufacturers of Stuffed toys
Fig. 324: Stuffed toys
The industry is characterised by a few leading players in the organised sector and large number of unorganised home based units. Some of the leading manufacturers are Hanung toys, Sunlord apparels, and Kridnak Udyog. Hanung Toys & Textiles Ltd was set up in technical collaboration with South Korea and is India's largest manufacturer and exporter of soft toys, decorative cushions & children's room furnishings. The company manufactures soft toys made of acrylic plush fabric stuffed with hollow PSF. Besides this the company also manufactures decorative cushions in various shapes, sizes, designs and colours, home furnishings in various fabrics, colours and designs and products like bed sets, duvet covers, curtains, throws, quilts, sleeping bags, bolsters/long cushions, cushion covers, floor rugs & carpets, sit sacks (bean bags). The company's products are exported to USA, Latin America, Europe and Middle East. Some of the key customers of Hanung are Wal-Mart, IKEA, Debenhams, American Pacific, Springs Industries, Mohawk Home, Home Centre, etc. The company markets its soft toys under the brand Play “N”Pets. The company has agreement with Walt Disney India that allows it to manufacture soft toys resembling Disney characters like Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, Goofy, Nemo and Lion King among others.
Besides this, stuffed toys also manufactured by unorganised home based units. These manufacturers are concentrated in Noida and Kolkata.
A window blind is a window covering composed of long strips of fabric or rigid material. A blind limits observation and thus ―blinds the observer to the view.
Blinds are made of variety of materials; the material chosen depends on the aesthetic and functionality required. The desired functional performance include light and glare control, desired outside view, ease in handling and maintenance, acoustic performance, etc. The most common window blinds are slat blinds, which consist of many horizontal slats, usually of metal or vinyl, connected with string in such a way that they can be rotated to allow light to pass between the slats, rotated up to about 170 degrees to hide the light, or pulled up so that the entire window is clear. Vertical blinds consist of slats of stiffened fabric, plastic, or metal hanging by one end from a track. Like the horizontal versions, the slats can be rotated 90 degrees to allow light to pass through or to fold up on one side of a door or window. Vertical blinds exhibit better control over the extent of natural or exterior light entering the room because of the ability of slats to close tightly.
Venetian blinds have horizontal slats, one slat above another. They are suspended by strips of cloth called tapes or by cords which are able to tip them each at the same time up to 180 degrees. There are also lift cords passing through holes in each slat. When these cords are pulled, the bottom of the blind moves upward causing slats to rest on each other as the blind is raised. Venetian blinds are basic slatted blinds made of metal or plastic; wooden slats are sometimes used but these are usually referred to as wood blinds or bamboo blinds. Slat width varies between 16 mm and 120 mm, the most common width being 50 mm.
Other varieties of window blinds include Mini blinds (venetian blinds with very narrow slats usually 25 mm wide), Micro blinds (with slats usually 12 mm wide), Louvers (fabric or poly vinyl), Jalousies, Brise Soleil, Holland blinds, Pleated blinds, Honeycomb blinds (similar to pleated shades except that there are two or more layers joined at the pleats to form compartments that trap air, providing insulation), Roman shades, and roller shades. The Louvers vary in width from 50 mm to 125 mm, but the most popular ones are the 100 mm louvers.
Key growth drivers
The commercial establishments like offices, hospitals, hotels etc. account for majority of domestic demand for blinds. Vertical blinds are the most popular in offices whereas Roman blinds are used in hotels. Roman blinds are also preferred for farm houses. The growth in domestic demand for blinds is expected to be driven by the infrastructure development planned in the country.
Fig. 325 shows examples of Blinds.
Key manufacturers of Blinds
Fig. 325: Blinds
The fabric and non-fabric components of blinds are manufactured by different producers and finally assembled by one dealer for final installation. The industry has a large number of players in unorganized sector with organized sector accounting for approximately 15% of the total market. The major manufacturers of blinds in the organized sector are:
- Hunter Douglas,
- Mac Décor Ltd.,
- Aerolux India Private Limited and
Various blind manufacturers are only fabricators and do not manufacture fabric. These players do contract manufacturing for production of coated fabrics. There are various players in Uttar Pradesh, Hyderabad, Nasik etc who manufacture these fabrics. The other players in this industry are Bagga Enterprises, Jain Venetion Blinds Ind., Growrich Horivert Private etc.
The other Hometech TT Products, viz,, HVAC Filters, Filter Fabrics for Vacuum Cleaners, Mattresses and Pillows, Nonwoven Wipes, Mosquito Nets and Furniture Fabrics will be taken up in the next article..
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Tech – Tex: Technical Textiles – 1 Clothtech”, Colourage 52 (1) 2005 Pp95-98.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Tech – Tex: Technical Textiles – 2 Medtech”, Colourage 52 (2) 2005 Pp87-93.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Tech – Tex: Technical Textiles – 3 Mobiltech”, Colourage 52 (3) 2005 Pp75-80.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Tech – Tex: Technical Textiles – 4 Protech”, Colourage 52 (5) 2005 Pp73-79.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Tech – Tex: Technical Textiles – 5 Sporttech”, Colourage 52 (6) 2005 Pp67-77.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Tech – Tex: Technical Textiles – 6 Hometech”, Colourage 52 (7) 2005 Pp71-78.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Tech – Tex: Technical Textiles – 7 Buildtech”, Colourage 52 (9) 2005 Pp85-92.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Tech – Tex: Technical Textiles – 8 Geotech”, Colourage 52 (12) 2005 Pp79-83..
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Tech – Tex: Technical Textiles – 9 Agrotech”, Colourage 53 (1) 2006 Pp93-98.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Tech – Tex: Technical Textiles – 10 Indutech”, Colourage 53 (4) 2006 Pp72-79.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Segments of technical textiles – present scenario of market-I: Agrotech Part-1”, Colourage 60 (5) 2013 Pp70-78.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Segments of technical textiles – present scenario of market-I: Agrotech Part-2, Colourage 60 (6) 2013 Pp60-67.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Segments of technical textiles – present scenario of market-II: Buildtech Part-1, Colourage 60 (7) 2013 Pp70-75.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Segments of technical textiles – present scenario of market-II: Buildtech Part-2, Colourage 60 (8) 2013 Pp66-76.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Segments of technical textiles – present scenario of market-II: Buildtech Part-3, Colourage 60 (9) 2013 Pp97-106, 108.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Segments of technical textiles – present scenario of market-II: Buildtech Part-4, Colourage 60 (10) 2013 Pp98-109.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Segments of technical textiles – present scenario of market-III: Clothtech Part-1(wrongly printed as Part-4), Colourage 60 (11) 2013 Pp102-103, 105-108.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Segments of technical textiles – present scenario of market-III: Clothtech Part-2, Colourage 60 (12) 2013 Pp94-102.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Segments of technical textiles – present scenario of market-III: Clothtech Part-3, Colourage 61 (1) 2014 Pp86-94.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Segments of technical textiles – present scenario of market-III: Clothtech Part-4, Colourage 61 (2) 2014 Pp44-52.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Segments of technical textiles – present scenario of market-III: Geotech Part-1, Colourage 61 (3) 2014 Pp92-97.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Segments of technical textiles – present scenario of market-III: Geotech Part-2, Colourage 61 (4) 2014 Pp.88-104.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Segments of technical textiles – present scenario of market-III: Geotech Part-3, Colourage 61 (5) 2014 Pp 67-76.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Segments of technical textiles – present scenario of market-III: Geotech Part-4, Colourage 61 (6) 2014 Pp 94-104.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Segments of technical textiles – present scenario of market-III: Geotech Part-5, Colourage 61 (8) 2014 Pp86-98.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Segments of technical textiles – present scenario of market-III: Geotech Part-6, Colourage 61 (9) 2014 Pp92-100.
- Nair, G.P. and Pandian, S.P., “Segments of technical textiles – present scenario of market-IV: Hometech Part-1, Colourage 61 (10) 2014 Pp87-95.
- Final Report of “Baseline survey of the technical textile industry in India”, March 2009, Offfice of the Textile Commissioner, ICRA Nanagement Consulting Services Limited (IMaCS); www.technotex.gov.in
Fig. 64: Antimicrobial Effect of SeaCell active fiber
Fig. 57: Wispelle
Fig. 58: Curtains/Blinds
Fig. 65: Chair with EURO-static upholstery
Fig. 59: Blackut Curtains
Fig. 60: Yarn for Mattress Pads
Fig. 61: Trevira Fill Bioactive in pillows
62: Antron Fibre Excell Carpets
Fig. 66: PAD-M Pastedot Machine
Fig. 63: Needle Punched Carpets
Fig. 67: Hotmelt Laminating Machine
Fig. 68: Hotmelt Laminating Technology
* Dr. G.P. Nair, M.Sc., Ph.D.(Text.), D.M.S. is an Advisor/Director/Consultant to textile process houses, textile research institutes and Universities. He has over 350 technical publications and 5 patents. Dr. Nair is associated with Colourage as its Hon. Editorial Advisor. His name and bio-data are included in Marquis Who's Who in the World 2014 (31st Edition) "as one of the leading and exceptional achievers in the textile field from around the world”
***Mr. S.P. Pandian, B.Sc.(Tech), M.Sc.(Tech) is a Consultant for textile processing and has established his own Consultancy firm at Mumbai. He has over 200 technical publications. He has attended many leading textile machinery and technical textiles fairs the world over.*