NACE releases new report on corrosion management in the water treatment sector
NACE International, the nonprofit association and leading resource for corrosion expertise and education, today released its Spotlight on Corrosion Report: The Critical Need for Corrosion Management in the Water Treatment Sector. Based on input from more than 1,300 corrosion professionals, the report identifies aging water infrastructure as a pressing, costly, yet resolvable threat to public health, and recommends the adoption of Corrosion Management Systems (CMS) as an immediate solution for water utilities and municipal systems.
"Like much of our nation's infrastructure, our drinking water pipelines and systems are nearing the end of their useful life," said NACE International CEO, Bob Chalker. "Ignoring this critical infrastructure until repairs are needed is far costlier, both economically and socially, than preventing corrosion from occurring in the first place. We all need water, we owe it to our communities to get it right from the start.”
According to a Federal Highway Administration study*, the direct cost of corrosion in U.S. drinking water and sewer systems is $80 billion annually, which includes the costs of replacing aging infrastructure and lost water from pipeline leaks, but it does not include the immeasurable cost of widespread health crises that corrosion can create, such as what has happened in Flint, Michigan.
Though corrosion management solutions for water treatment systems exist, many communities nationwide do not adequately implement optimal corrosion control practices into their systems. The Spotlight Report equips water treatment professionals and owners of systems of all sizes, with the information they need to help identify and solve the root cause of corrosion within their systems.
The report is also a valuable tool for initiating an important conversation in communities across the country about how critical it is to invest in water infrastructure to prevent the imminent threat corrosion poses to public health. In 2019, representatives from NACE International's 56 nationwide membership sections will use this report to work with their community leaders, municipalities, and water systems management to improve and protect local water systems.
The Spotlight on Corrosion Report was guided and reviewed by a Task Force of five NACE International Fellows – a group of technical and professional experts recognized for their distinguished contributions in the field of corrosion and its prevention.
The full report is available at nace.org/spotlight.
Zinc thermal spray and paint duplex systems help control passenger ship's corrosion
FRANK Goodwin, director of Technology and Market Development at International Zinc Association, explaining on how zinc thermal spray and paint duplex systems keep ships rust-free said: “It is estimated that rust and corrosion cost the marine industry US$50-80 billion per year. Despite this staggering cost, many ship operators and companies in the marine industry still do not track and measure their corrosion maintenance expenses, which makes them difficult to manage.”
Many shipowners see planned corrosion maintenance (i.e. regular scheduled painting) as a necessary burden, but this doesn't need to be the case. High performance corrosion protection systems that comprise a thermal spray zinc base coat and a paint top coat – known as duplex coatings – are readily available and already widely used in other industries facing similar corrosion problems. Shipowners now have a significant opportunity to lower the total cost of ownership by implementing duplex coatings that can meet, or exceed, the design life of their vessels.
Zinc coatings are highly effective at protecting ships from rust and corrosion because they provide a physical barrier, as well as cathodic protection, for the underlying steel. Metallic zinc coatings – thermal sprayed or galvanised – have the added benefit of being highly resistant to abrasions. This combination of corrosion resistance and durability is why car manufacturers can offer 10-year rust warranties, and it is why offshore wind tower structures can stay in service 25 years without coating maintenance.
For shipowners, zinc thermal spray is the best method of preventing long-term corrosion. Unlike organic paint systems, thermal spraying creates a layered metallic coating that is both highly durable and extremely long lasting. It also adheres strongly to steel, forming an ideal substrate for paint topcoats. These duplex systems can often be specified to provide corrosion protection over the entire service life of the vessel, up to 25 years without interim coating maintenance.
Zinc thermal spray and paint duplex systems offer a sustainable and economic solution for protecting steel from rust and corrosion. Slightly higher initial expenditures are significantly offset by lower maintenance expenses over time, as are indirect costs due to reduced downtime. In addition, the vessel is kept in a better shape, adding value to both her aesthetic appearance and asset resale price. Not only do thermal spray coatings provide decades of maintenance-free longevity, but also their primary component, zinc, is a natural, abundant and fully recyclable material. Using thermal spray zinc as part of a duplex coating system ensures that fewer natural resources are consumed, fewer emissions are produced, and less money is spent over the life of a ship.
Factoring corrosion protection into a vessel's total cost of ownership may not be a common practice in the shipping industry at present; however, it should be because the lowest priced option is rarely the least costly in the long run. The consequent higher return on investment is not only good business, but it also helps secure financing, he said
Winter road salt may corrode plumbing and contaminate water for nearby well owners
ROAD SALT helps keep roads from icing up in the winter, but it also seeps into groundwater, raising its chloride levels. High levels of chloride in water can corrode plumbing and leach harmful metals into drinking water, posing health risks, particularly for people using well water. A new study involving citizen science predicts that nearly a quarter of private wells in New York state, USA could be influenced by road salt application and its consequences to plumbing and health (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2018, DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.8b04709).
Chloride causes corrosion when it reacts with metals in plumbing, including iron, lead, and copper. In Flint, Michigan, this phenomenon caused the neurotoxin lead to contaminate drinking water when the city switched its water supply to a river with elevated chloride levels.
Stephanie Weiss looks over the results of a study by Virginia Tech researchers investigating water issues for well users in the area. The study was sparked after she found that parts of her washing machine (shown) had disintegrated.
In the upstate New York town of Orleans, residents living near a storage barn for road salt had private wells with elevated chloride levels, according to a 2012 report by environmental and geological consulting firm Alpha Geoscience. In the past few years, Stephanie Weiss and her family, who have a private well about 3 km from the storage barn, noticed some of their appliances failing. Two new dishwashers stopped working in short succession, and the spindle of their washing machine disintegrated. They got their water tested and found high levels of lead.
Credit: Virginia Tech
When the news about Flint broke, Weiss, who has a bachelor's degree in chemistry and is a coauthor of the new study, began to “put two and two together, in terms of what happened chemically in Flint and what was happening chemically here.” She called Virginia Tech's Marc A. Edwards, an environmental engineer who helped uncover the Flint water crisis, to ask if he would investigate the problem.
Edwards, postdoctoral associate Kelsey J. Pieper, and their colleagues designed a study to look into the issue. They provided over 100 water testing kits to residents with private wells in Orleans, with directions for taking water samples at home. The researchers analyzed the samples they received from 90 residents for chloride and metals and found trends consistent with the 2012 report: chloride levels were highest for wells near the salt barn, elevated but less high for those near major roads, and lowest for those near minor roads. Overall, 21% of wells had chloride levels over the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended level of 250 mg/L. And 20% had levels of lead or copper over the EPA's action levels of 15 µg/L and 1.3 mg/L, respectively.
For people relying on well water, elevated chloride can corrode plumbing and other metal fixtures, such as this washing machine spindle from Stephanie Weiss's home in Orleans, New York.
Because plumbing composition varied among the homes, the researchers could not use the citizen science data to link the road salt with metal release. Instead, in the lab, they produced simulated well water with the range of chloride levels they found in homes and applied it to metal wires and simulated lead solder joints. As chloride levels increased to 250 mg/L, more lead leached from simulated lead solder joints, with no difference in leaching at higher chloride levels. Copper leaching from lead solder joints was greatest at lower levels of chloride.
Credit: Virginia Tech
Finally, through modeling, the team estimated that 24% of private wells in New York state could be affected by road salt application and 2% by salt storage facilities.
Sujay S. Kaushal, a biogeochemist at the University of Maryland, calls the study “really interesting and important,” noting that its citizen science component provides rare insight into the impact of road salt on private wells. Well owners don't usually test their water frequently, he says, but this study shows that it's important to do so in the winter, especially where road salt is commonly used, such as in the northeast or midwestern US.
Car corrosion speeded by lower use of galvanised steel
LESSER usage of galvanised steel in cars for domestic consumption is leading to faster corrosion in vehicles used in coastal areas. Automobile manufacturers are using lesser quantum of galvanised steel in cars meant for the domestic market compared to those produced for the export market.
The studies done by IIT Bombay on hatchback and some of the sedan cars in Mumbai and Chennai have shown that higher usage of uncoated steel in the body parts of cars increases the incidence of visible perforations, paint blisters, and surface red rust within five years of use. With Indians spending nearly 12 hours more of their time behind wheels on an average every day, there is a higher risk of life due to corrosion, the study found.
Corrosion mainly occurs due to higher levels humidity and chloride content in the air in coastal areas. Cars with higher galvanised steel content took around 10 years to corrode. Vehilces used in interior areas with lesser humidity too had higher life.
“The study is an eye-opener for car owners as it clearly indicates the causes for imperfection that arise owing to climatic conditions. Currently, there is almost zero awareness about how these imperfections over the years grow into life-threatening hazards for car owners and we are confident that this study will create an impact by creating the desired awareness among the public,” said Anand Khanna, former professor, department of metallurgy engineering, IIT – Bombay, who spearheaded the survey in Chennai. International Zinc Association also participated in the survey which was completed recently. IIT Bombay had conducted the study in Mumbai cars costing less than Rs 10 lakh in 2015 and had found similar results, indicating that the phenomenon is prevalent across the coastal belt of the country.
On an average, Indian car manufacturers use about 20-25 per cent galvanised steel for the vehicles manufactured and sold in the domestic market. However, the same Indian car manufacturers use over 70 per cent galvanised steel for the same models they export to markets in Europe, Asia and Africa and produced from the same stamping and assembly facilities.
“The car companies are not presently using galvanised steel for the domestic market because Indian consumers are not demanding it. In India they use it only in the chassis, while it is used all over the body in costlier cars and those meant for exports. A car would cost only Rs 5,000 to Rs 8,000 more by replacing uncoated steel with galvanised steel. Considering the safety issues and life of the vehicle, this is not a big cost,” said Khanna.
NACE to study corrosion loss in India, submit report by February
US based National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) will come up with a report on corrosion loss in India by February 2019.
“As per a report of 2016, the annual loss due to corrosion is around 3-4 per cent of global GDP. NACE will come up with a detailed report by February, 2019 on corrosion losses in India,” A K Tewari, executive director (operations) of Indian Oil Corporation (IOCL) told media persons in Bhubaneswar.
He said the 19th National Conference on Corrosion Control held in Bhubaneswar from discussed industrial corrosion problems. The three-day event was organised by National Corrosion Council of India, Karaikudi in collaboration with CSIR (Council of Scientific & Industrial Research), Central Electrochemical Research Institute and IOCL (pipelines division).
The conference analysed various industrial corrosion problems and provide a platform for interaction between industrialists, scientists and professionals to enhance the state-of-the-art knowledge on 'corrosion science and engineering'. Union minister for Petroleum and Natural Gas Dharmendra Pradhan will inaugurate the event.
Choubey said the Paradip-Hyderabad product pipeline project entailing an investment of Rs 33 billion will be completed by the end of 2020. The oil PSU will lay the Paradip-Hyderabad pipeline (PHPL) to evacuate products like motor spirits, high-speed diesel, kerosene and aviation turbine fuel (ATF) from its refinery at Paradip.
The laying of the 1212 km pipeline has already commenced and the project is listed in National Perspective Plan under the Sagarmala Programme announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The pipeline will ensure uninterrupted supply of petroleum products for catering the growing demand in the states of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
Cortec unveils clear water-based removable coating with corrosion properties
CORTEC, a global leader in innovative corrosion protection technology, said it has simplified equipment protection with the launch of its new VpCI-391.
Cortec's VpCI-391 water-based coating is transforming transit and storage protection options for equipment manufacturers, suppliers, and owners
This removable coating delivers exceptional corrosion protection for indoor and outdoor applications and dries to a thin, clear film which is virtually unnoticeable. VpCI-391 can be used to protect both unpainted and painted surfaces, as well as to prevent dissimilar metal corrosion, it stated.
According to Cortec, the biggest advantage of VpCI-391 is that, as a water-based coating, it is much easier to use and clean up than solvent-based systems.
It can be easily removed from equipment or structures using alkaline cleaners—however, this is not always necessary because of the coating's clear non-tacky appearance, stated the company.
These characteristics make VpCI-391 an excellent alternative to applying traditional thick heavy waxy or greasy products like Cosmoline or Tectyl, which are messy to use, difficult to remove, and do not leave a clean appearance, it added. VpCI-391 is a single component system with no mixing required. It can be applied via spray, brush, roll, or dip. VOCs are less than 0.5 pounds per gallon (48 g/L), said the statement.
The coating goes on white and dries clear, or it can be tinted to a specific color if desired. VpCI-391 does not harm plastic, so overspray on plastic components is not a concern, it added.