Corrosion News

Excerpt: Corrosion causes Rs. 1000 cr/yr loss in coastal areas: Steel Minister. India loses up to $100 billion annually to corrosion: Sunil Duggal, Hind Zinc CEO.

Corrosion causes Rs. 1000 cr/yr loss in coastal areas: Steel Minister

COASTAL areas across India face losses of more than Rs 1,000 crore annually due to corrosion, which can be checked by galvanising structures using zinc, stated Steel Minister Chaudhary Birendra Singh said while inaugurating the International Galvanising Conference in New Delhi recently

"Structures in these areas are prone to corrosion incurring loss of over 1000 crore every year. Structures built on the coastal areas need to be protected by choosing galvanised bar," he said.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi's Smart City project will be built on reformed structures that will promote use of steel and zinc, he said, adding that the focus will be on Research & Development (R&D) as well as exploration.

"Like an ant can kill an elephant, you need zinc coating to make steel corrosion free. To achieve long life in bridges, India needs galvanised steel structures," Singh said.

He said “Like an ant can kill an elephant, you need Zinc coating to make Steel corrosion free. To achieve long life in bridges, India needs galvanized steel structures. Consumption of Zinc is directly related to Steel market. India needs to grow on the basis of USA's metal industry. Whatever produced, needs to be consumed. Coastal area structures are prone to corrosion incurring loss of over 1000 crores every year”. The Minister ensured the industries of full support from the government and also how Zinc will play an important role towards building infrastructure for the nation.

Speaking on the occasion, the CEO of Hindustan Zinc – Sunil Duggal spoke about expanding Zinc market in India and the scope of Zinc in automobile industries, fertilizers, rebars, as a nutrient and towards galvanizing the rail tracks. He spoke about the ancient history of Zinc and India being pioneering country giving Zinc to the world.

Sunil Duggal said “Hindustan Zinc is ready to meet 100% die-casting requirement in India. For meeting 1% of GDP through mining, Indian mining industry needs to grow 27% and Hindustan Zinc at-least 50%. Delhi's Lotus Temple structure built lasts for 1000 years. HZL has been approached to provide Zinc for Krishna's temple in Vrindawan, since the focus is on building corrosion free structure.”

Mr. Stephen Wilkinson – Executive Director of International Zinc Association said, “Car makers in Europe, North America, Korea and Japan have been using galvanised steel for body panels for decades. These car companies provide anti-corrosion and perforation warranties for a minimum of 10 years. But there is no such protection for most cars made for the Indian consumers. Here, the customers are advised to pay for extra coatings to protect the body of the car after purchase. More than 60% of the cars in India have surface rust which reduces steel strength and the life of the car.”

The Steel Minister also launches the new product of Hindustan Zinc – 'HZDA' (Hindustan Zinc Die-Casting Alloy). The new product was launched as part of inauguration ceremony. The unique product is produced using Primary Zinc and pure aluminium. 'HZDA' will cater to the need of the die-casting sector for applications in automobile components, house hold appliances, sanitary-ware and defence. Company will also start production of the Toning Alloy series for consumption in steel galvanizing sector for precise control of aluminium in galvanizing bath.

On the occasion, Sunil Duggal – CEO, HZL also said “The launch of 'HZDA' is in line with the support of Prime Minister's flag-ship program 'Make in India' and is expected to replace the imported zinc alloys and to cater to the need of Auto and Steel Industry. Hindustan Zinc is ready to meet 100% die-casting requirement in India.” He also launched the Hindustan Zinc die casting alloy (HZDA) that is produced using primary zinc and pure aluminium and will cater to the needs of the die-casting sector for applications in automobile components, household appliances, sanitary-ware and defence.

The conference would deliberate on various applications of Zinc in the global economy and how Zinc is to play significant role towards improving Global Infrastructure.

India loses up to $100 billion annually to corrosion: Sunil Duggal, Hind Zinc CEO

"INDIA loses around 4-5 per cent of GDP annually on account of corrosion losses," said Hindustan Zinc Ltd (HZL) CEO Sunil Duggal . Thus with a GDP of around $2 trillion, India loses as much as $100 billion (more than Rs 6 lakh crore) every year on account of corrosion, which can be checked by using zinc to galvanise steel structures, he said

The West, ahead of India in terms of infrastructure, mandates use of zinc for galvanising steel structures in bridges, highways, public utilities, metro stations and airports, among others, to make them long-lasting and robust, he added.

Citing examples of the Athens bridge in Pennsylvania (US) and the Curtis Road bridge in Michigan (US), Duggal said structures utilising galvanised steel rebars have much longer life span than the conventional ones.

Galvanised rebar can withstand chloride concentration at least 4-5 times higher than the black steel rebar and remains passivated at lower pH levels, substantially slowing the rate of corrosion, he noted.

HZL in association with International Zinc Association (IZA) had organized this two-day international galvanising conference in the national capital, which had speakers from JSW Steel, Tata Steel, Maruti and Essar, among others.

The talks covered the potential zinc and steel market, role of zinc in infrastructure and its application in emerging sectors like automobiles, rail tracks as well as the galvanisation of rebars to strengthen structures, particularly in coastal areas

Hindustan Zinc, a Vedanta group company, is investing over Rs 8,000 crore in expansion of its mines and smelting operations. The company is set to enhance its mined metal production to 1.2 million tonnes per annum.

NACE publishes revised coating and lining application specialist training and certification standard

NACE has recently published the 2016 revised NACE No. 13/SSPC-ACS 1, “Industrial Coating and Lining Application Specialist Qualification and Certification.”

The standard includes up-to-date information for qualifying the coatings and linings application specialist through a broad range of classroom instruction and associated work experiences, and is a tool that every stakeholder who writes project specifications, hires, and/or trains coating and lining application specialists should have on hand.

What is an Application Specialist?

The application specialist is defined in the standard as an individual who engages in surface preparation and application of protective coatings and linings.

Why is the Certified Application Specialist Important?

The trained and certified application specialist has the knowledge and skills to drive the quality control of a coatings or linings project from the surface up. If the surface isn't prepared properly before application, or the coating or lining isn't applied skillfully, the job quality will most likely suffer, leading to costly repairs as a result of premature coating or lining failure, and corrosion.

“Contrary to what many people think, quality control is not in the hands of the inspector,” says Gil Rogers, general manager, Alberta Coating Contractors Association (Sherwood Park, Alberta, Canada); NACE member; and chair of the NACE/SSPC joint Task Group (TG) 320 that recently revised the standard.

“Inspectors only check or confirm quality, whereas the coating applicator is the one who actually controls the quality of the [surface preparation and the coating or lining] application. This makes NACE No. 13/SSPC-ACS-1 a game changer in that regard,” says Rogers, who started out as a painter about 40 years ago and gained journeyman status in 1977.

Anton Ruesing, executive director, Finishing Trades Institute (Hanover, Maryland); NACE member; and a member of TG 320, agrees that developing training and certification programs for application specialists is an important step for the trade. “I think this certification will help others—owners, contractors, government agencies, etc.—see the critical nature of proper surface preparation and coating application. What coating and lining applicators do protects the infrastructure in our country from literally crumbling around us.”

How does this Standard Add Value?

The standard provides the criteria for developing a quality certification program. There are three qualification levels plus specialty endorsements, and an extensive Body of Knowledge table provided as guidance for developing or assessing a training program to train and certify application specialists.

Qualification Level I requires a basic knowledge of industrial coatings, linings, and safety; Level II requires detailed knowledge and skills of industrial coatings and linings; Specialty Endorsements

requires Level II, plus detailed knowledge and skills of specialty areas, such as coating concrete, waterjetting, electrostatic spray, specialty pipeline coating installations, etc.; and Level III requires Level II, plus three or more specialty endorsements.

What's in it for the Applicator?

Beyond the benefits for owners, contractors, etc., of hiring a skilled applicator, the industrial painter now has a career roadmap that incorporates his or her experience into a training program that leads to a certification.

“This is not the industry or the contractors certification program, it is the painter's training and certification program,” says Jeff Theo, vice president, Business Development, Vulcan Group Inc. (Bessemer, Alabama); NACE member; SSPC member; and TG 320 vice chair representing SSPC on the joint committee to revise the standard.

“By finishing an application specialist's training program based on this standard, the painter can receive a certification and become a specialist in a growing field that may offer job security and better pay. Think of it as a diploma in coatings application.”

Ruesing, who has been a painter for 20 years, agrees with Theo, and says the standard provides painters with something for which they can be proud.

“For experienced painters the certification is something emblematic of the lifelong journey toward being a master craftsman, a token of their experience and hard work; and for the young and inexperienced painter it is something to focus on, a level of achievement for which they can strive,” he says.

What does the Future Look Like?

With a current shortage of trained and certified coatings and linings applicators, there may be a better job market for certified application specialists as more critical contracts are awarded, for example, to meet the demands to improve the country's transportation infrastructure, maintain pipelines, and for capital improvements in other industries.

Theo, who has worked in the industry for about 39 years, says the training programs developed from this standard may open doors for the unemployed, as well as men and women returning from military service, to become trained and certified. The training and certification programs developed from the standard may also help with worker retention.

“The chance to earn more money may appeal to those applicators that are considering a career change, or want to upgrade their skills instead of leaving the industry,” Theo says. “The advantages of continuing education are well known, and this standard offers coating applicators the chance to grow individually.”

Now that the revised standard is published, the next hurdle is convincing industry stakeholders to buy into the need to hire certified applicators and/or develop certification programs to train application specialists. But, equally important, is for those who write project specifications to require certified application specialists on the jobsite.

Some progress has been made in this direction, but the industry now finds itself in a sort of "What came first, the chicken or the egg?” dilemma. Now that the standard is in place to develop certification programs, the industry must catch up by actually training and certifying applicators in order to meet the demands in project specifications.

“Because the certification is relatively new and the number of certified individuals is not currently adequate to meet industry's demands,” Rogers says. “NACE No. 13/SSPC-ACS-1 is being written into specifications as a 'preferred' requirement. However, as the number of tradesmen carrying the certification grows, this will change and the standard will be written into specifications as a requirement.”

Turner Industries earns accreditation from the NACE International Institute Contractor Accreditation Program

AFTER a rigorous audit, which included an administrative review and on-site audit, Turner Industries has earned accreditation from the NACE International Institute Contractor Accreditation Program (NIICAP).

NIICAP is an industry-designed and managed program focused on contractors

involved with professional project management and project performance in the surface preparation and coating or lining application industry; it was created in response to demand for an alternative to other coatings contractor accreditation programs.

“Turner has been committed to building, maintaining and servicing the nation's heavy industrial sector for over 50 years,” says Richard Kelly, Operations Manager. “Our ability to remain successful hinges on us working hard to find, develop and support the very best people for the jobs we perform throughout our four divisions. Working to achieve NIICAP accreditation is an important component in our efforts to be the best at what we do and has given our craft workers something to take great pride in, as do we.”

The NIICAP Oversight Board is mainly composed of project owners. However, coatings contractors also get a voice through a contractor committee, which enables the accreditation program to be the first to bridge the gap between what asset owners are seeking and what coatings contractors provide.

“The NACE International Institute is known for its thorough and unparalleled qualification programs,” said Chris Fowler, president of NACE International Institute. “The institute is leading the way in developing the best programs to improve and mitigate the costly—and sometimes catastrophic—effects of corrosion. NIICAP is an essential part of any contractor's important work and those contractors who earn accreditation set themselves apart from - and above - their competitors.”

By earning the NIICAP seal, contractors verify that they are fully qualified to perform the reliably and consistently using the latest in coatings preparation, application and inspection techniques and practices. For owners, this translates to better quality, increased savings and reduced risks.

“We hope to see more contractors bidding with this accreditation,” said Johnny Eliasson, Hull and Coatings Engineer, Chevron Shipping Company LLC, “as it provides the owners with another venue to keep the contractor accountable, while helping us identify contractors with a proven track record of going the extra mile to continuously execute quality work.”

For more information about the NACE International Institute Contractor Accreditation Program, visit

Researchers look at ways to improve Pennsylvania bridges

EVERY day, millions of Pennsylvania motorists drive on or under one of the Commonwealth's more than 22,000 bridges without ever thinking about its safety and durability.

Researchers at Penn State, in collaboration with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, USA (PennDOT), however, are thinking about it and are trying to improve the bridges in the process.

Aleksandra Radlińska, assistant professor of civil engineering, along with associate professors Farshad Rajabipour and Gordon Warn, recently conducted a study to identify the key factors that contribute t o premature cracking in concrete bridge decks. The team also assessed the effects of the cracks on the long-term durability of the bridges.

"When the current infrastructure was built in the 1950s under President Eisenhower, it was built for that era's tra ffic demands, with little focus on maintenance," Radlińska said. "Few, if any, expected the number of vehicles in the nation to increase by 300 percent and the nation's population to increase by 91 percent."

The result is an aging infrastructure in need of major repair.

According to the Federal Highway Administration's 2015 National Bridge Inventory, of the 22,783 bridges in Pennsylvania, 21 percent are classified as structurally deficient and another 19 percent are classified as functionally obsolete. The estimated cost to repair those bridges numbers in the billions.

One of the primary causes of early bridge deterioration is premature cracking of the bridge deck. These cracks significantly decrease the durability and service life of the bridge and enable chlorides and moisture to penetrate into the concrete, leading to accelerated corrosion of the steel reinforcement.

Until now, only a limited amount of information has been available as to how premature cracking truly affects long-term performance of bridge decks. In order to improve this deficiency, the researchers conducted a comprehensive two-part study, the largest of its kind.

First, they sent a survey to 71 key PennDOT employees representing the design, construction, bridge inspection, and materials units. The survey's objective was to collect and document details about the experience of PennDOT employees with early-age cracking as it relates to long- term bridge deck performance.

Second, inspection data from both newly constructed and older concrete bridge decks was collected and analyzed. The team inspected 40 existing concrete bridge decks and obtained 19 core samples that were extracted from the decks and analyzed at Penn State laboratories. In addition, PennDOT crack inspections from 163 newly constructed bridge decks were also summarized and analyzed.

In total, 203 Pennsylvania bridge decks were evaluated to identify the main factors that contribute to early-age cracking and to assess the effects of cracks on the long-term durability of bridge decks.

The study, recently published in the Transportation Research Record Journal, determined that higher concrete strength was associated with higher deck crack density; lower total cement-based materials and higher Portland cement replacement with supplementary materials resulted in less cracking; decks constructed with half- width procedures cracked four times more than decks constructed with full-width procedures; and epoxy-coated rebar was effective in resisting corrosion, even in cracked concrete and at the location of cracks.

Additionally, the researchers were able to create a deck performance database to enable a more extensive and detailed data collection process and better monitoring of Pennsylvania bridge decks over time.

"One of the project tasks was focused on creating a database for PennDOT to record all the relevant bridge deck information in one central location and have it available for ongoing and future research needs, " Radlińska said. "The database will store key information related to bridge design and construction, including the type of bridge, along with the support, span, length and traffic pattern during its construction."

The database will also allow the development of detailed deterioration models that will help predict the future performance and service lives of concrete bridge decks and improve the maintenance costs over their life spans.

"There is no one solution to fix it all," Radlińska said. "Every bridge is different, so we have a lot of data points that connect to specific models which will allow PennDOT to determine the best remediation strategies for these deteriorated bridges."

New bridge repair method developed using advanced concrete

THE Connecticut Department of Transportation (CTDOT) (Newington, Connecticut) recently received a national award for a new bridge repair method, developed at the University of Connecticut (UConn (Storrs, Connecticut), that could significantly decrease the time, lane closures, and cost needed to repair a bridge.

The method of repair involves using advanced concrete as a cast over the end of a bridge's steel girders, where corrosion from the elements and salt often occur.

“When tested in the lab, this repair method actually made the corrosion- damaged girder stronger than an intact girder,” says Arash Zaghi, who led the research as an assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering at UConn. Zaghi worked with assistant professor Kay Wille in civil and environmental engineering and a team of UConn graduate students. Both faculty members are also affiliated with UConn's Institute of Materials Science.

Zaghi says the technique also has the potential to significantly reduce the need for lane closures and cut the cost of repairs dramatically.

Brad Overturf, a transportation supervising planner with CTDOT, emphasizes the financial impact of the project.

“We see the potential benefits in terms of speed, cost, and not having to shut down the bridge for the repair,” Overturf

says. “There's enormous potential for cost saving.”

The process is about to be tested under real-world conditions.

The award, called a Sweet 16 Transportation Through Excellence Award from the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (Washington, DC), recognizes 16 innovative transportation projects throughout the United States. These “high- value research projects” were selected from more than 120 projects submitted by state-level departments of transportation.

A bridge, showing corrosion of a steel beam. Photo courtesy of CME Engineering and Uconn

A bridge, showing corrosion of a steel beam. Photo courtesy of CME Engineering and Uconn

Currently, a bridge has to be jacked up to carry out repairs. In other words, the support structure of the bridge cannot hold any weight while it is being worked on. This process can account for up to 70% of a repair project's cost and can close traffic lanes, increasing congestion, UConn says.

The new technique developed at UConn involves welding shear connectors to the girder, then pouring ultra-high performance concrete directly around the metal, with studs keeping the concrete in place. Since this can be done without jacking the bridge, this repair method could significantly shorten the time needed to fix support beams.

Many of the bridges throughout the nation were built in the 1950s and 1960s, and they are thus reaching the end of their estimated lifespan. The new repair technique could add decades to their useful life, UConn says.

Researchers note that many older bridges were often coated in lead paint, and require costly abatement before repair work can begin. On the other hand, the concrete cast simply seals the paint in place and covers it, allowing repairs to proceed with no environmental risk.

Zaghi says the CTDOT has been very supportive of innovative research.

“CTDOT is really one of the most progressive departments of transportation in the nation,” he says. “They're strongly committed to research and innovation that address the challenges of aging bridge infrastructure.”

Ultra-high performance concrete, which is used in this repair method, is a new type of concrete that is reinforced with steel fibers and made from high-quality components. Zaghi says that, in addition to the impressive strength of the concrete, it hardens in only 12 hours and resists corrosion from bad weather.

“There's been extensive research into the material—it's very weather-resistant, and water doesn't get inside of it, as it does with traditional concrete,” he says. “The concrete will help protect the steel.”

Graphene coating can protect glass from corrosion

RESEARCHERS have demonstrated graphene coating protects glass from corrosion. Their work can contribute to solving problems related to glass corrosion in several industries.

Glass has a high degree of both corrosion and chemical resistance. For this reason it is the primary packaging material to preserve medicines and chemicals. However, over time at high humidity and pH, some glass types corrode. Corroded glass loses its transparency and its strength is reduced. As a result, the corrosion of silicate glass, the most common and oldest form of glass, by water is a serious problem

especially for the pharmaceutical, environmental and optical industries, and in particular in hot and humid climates.

Silicate structure dissolves

Although there are different types of glass, ordinary glazing and containers are made of silicon dioxide (SiO)2, sodium oxide (Na2O) along with minor additives. Glass corrosion begins with the adsorption of water on the glass surface. Hydrogen ions from water then diffuse into the glass and exchange with the sodium ions present on the glass surface. The pH of the water near the glass surface increases, allowing the silicate structure to dissolve.

Ideal coating is thin and transparent

Scientists have been looking at how to coat glass to protect it from damage. An ideal protective coating should be thin, transparent, and provide a good diffusion barrier to chemical attack. Graphene with its chemical inertness, thinness, and high transparency makes it very promising as a coating material. Moreover, owing to its excellent chemical barrier properties it blocks helium atoms from penetrating through it. The use of graphene coating is being explored as a protective layer for other materials requiring resistance to corrosion, oxidation, friction, bacterial infection, electromagnetic radiation, etc. No change in fracture strength and roughness

Scientists at the Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials (CMCM), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) grew graphene on copper and transferred either one or two atom-thick layers of graphene onto both sides of rectangular pieces of glass. The effectiveness of the graphene coating was evaluated by water immersion testing and observing the differences between uncoated and coated glass. After 120 days of immersion in water at 60°C, uncoated glass samples had significantly increased in surface roughness and defects, and reduced in fracture strength. In contrast, both the single and double layer graphene- coated glasses had essentially no change in both fracture strength and surface roughness.

Even one atom-thick layer does the trick

"The purpose of the study was to determine whether graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foils, a now established method, could be transferred onto glass, and protect the glass from corrosion. Our study shows that even one atom-thick layer of graphene does the trick,” explains Prof. Ruoff, director of the CMCM and Professor at the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST). "In the future, when it is possible to produce larger and yet higher-quality graphene sheets and to optimise the transfer on glass, it seems reasonably likely that graphene coating on glass will be used on an industrial scale.”

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